After the Italian surrender to the Allies in September 1943 and Germany’s partial occupation of northern and central Italy, German forces tried arresting and deporting all Jews to labor camps. However, due to advanced warnings and lack of cooperation by the local Italian authorities, not quite 7,000 Jews could be apprehended, plus 1,800 in the Italian zone of occupation in Greece. Most of them were deported to Auschwitz, but a few also to other camps, such as Buchenwald, Ravensbrück and Flossenbürg. (See the entry on Jewish demography for a broader perspective.)

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