Romania never deported any Jews to German camps, but when reconquering Moldova and Transnistria from the Soviet Union in 1941 with German help, pogroms against the local Jews broke out. The Jews were suspected by the Romanians and locals that they had collaborated with the Stalinist occupants. The Romanian authorities exacerbated the situation by deporting tens of thousands of Moldovan Jews east of the Dnester River, dumping them there in German-controlled territory. This led to a prolonged conflict with the German armed forces controlling some of these areas who did not want to be burdened with these homeless and jobless Jews. The ultimate death toll of this tragedy is unknown, but figures ranged from several thousand to over 100,000. (See the entry on Jewish demography for a broader perspective.)

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